Exotic Native Indonesian Fruits

By S. Kramer

The geographical position of Indonesia on the equator gives the country a favorable climate for many varieties of plants to grow including flowers and fruits. The rainy season that starts around October and lasts till April are the harvest seasons for fruits. Some exotic fruits known to be native of Indonesia among others are:

    1. durian

      durian

      Durian (genus Durio) comprises of about 30 species including the cultivated ones. Known for century, durian was introduced the western world only about 600 years ago. Also known as the King of Fruit, durian is really controversial because of its distinct strong smell coming from the sulfur content. Some people describe the distinctive odor as sewage smells, rotten onion and turpentine. It grows all over Indonesia including Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, and Maluku islands. Naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, who did extensive research on Indonesian flora and fauna during the 19th century, described the fruit as having a rich almond like custards.

    2. Manggis or purple Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) originated from west Java and Maluku. It is known also the queen of fruits. It was introduced to England in 1855 and spread further to western hemisphere. It has a purple skin and white  flesh with sweet and sour tastes.

      manggis

      manggis

 

C. Salak (Salacca Zalacca) is also known as snake fruit due to the scaly brown outer skin. It was native to Sumatra and Java before it was brought further to other islands including Bali, Lombok, and Maluku. Salak has yellowish crunchy crumbly moist flesh like apple with sweet and sour taste with the hard seed inside.

salak

salak

D. Jambu air (Syzyggium samarangense) is also known as the Java apple. The varieties come in different colors from crimson red and deep purple to black and green. It has a high water content, almost like watermelon, and a refreshing taste like pear.

Jambu air

Jambu air

img-20160130-wa0048

Kepel

E. Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is from central Java. The fruit is a symbol of Jogyakarta. Kepel also symbolizes unity as well as mental and spiritual integrity. It is highly valued by the Javanese Sultanate due to its health benefits as anti-contraceptive, oral deodorant, prevention of kidney inflammation and its ability to activate helpful bacterium in the digestion.

 

Posted in Bali, Culinary, Indonesia, Java | Leave a comment

Around Historic Yogyakarta (part1): Kota Gedhe

By S. Kramer

KOTA GEDE is small regency on the outskirt of Yogyakarta Central Java Indonesia. The name means the big city. The area was chosen by Sunan Kalijaga (an Islamic leader) as the site for Mataram, the first Javanese Islamic kingdom in the 16th century. It was a transition time from previously Hindu Buddhist kingdoms of Demak and Pajang to the Islamic era in Java. Historical remnant of Mataram can be seen in the old Javanese style houses and part of the city thick walls and motts around the city. The flourishing trades from the old settlement in the past that are still carried on by the present generations like silver craft, leather carving and weaving can still be found in many parts of Kotagedhe.

PAnembahan Senapati the first king of Mataram, coronated 1579 AD died 1601 AD

PAnembahan Senapati the first king of Mataram, coronated 1579 AD died 1601 AD

Mataram Kingdom Royal Cemetery entrance gate

Mataram Kingdom Royal Cemetery entrance gate

One interesting object to visit in Kotagedhe is the Royal Cemetery. The Hindu influence can still be seen on the architectural design of the Royal cemetery.  It is the burial site for the royal family members of Mataram, including the first king Panembahan Senapati, who died in 1601 AD.  The most unique part of this cemetery is the graveyard of Senapati’s son in-law, Ki Ageng Mangir. He was an opposition leader fighting against the king’s power but conquered and killed at the site when he came to pay respect to the king after being persuaded to marry the king’s daughter. His graveyard was half inside and half outside the wall.  Senapati’s  descendant, Sultan Agung, ascended to the throne and brought Java to its golden Era. To visit the Royal cemetery, visitors have to dress in Javanese traditional clothes and are not allowed to wear gold jewelries.

Posted in Indonesia, Java | Leave a comment

Tesso Nilo National Park Sumatra(2): The Most Diverse Vascular Plants Collection in the World

By S. Kramer

The Flying Squad experience is only one of the many things that attract visitors to Tesso Nilo National Park. Other attractions in the nearby area include the 11th century Muara Takus Buddhist temple and the unique Bono tidal bore surfing at nearby Kampar River.  Bono is the high wave formed when the ocean tide meets the river stream flowing to the sea. The waves can reach up to 10 meters high. The local legend told that the seven consecutive waves of the Bono were the ghosts of seven male dragons. Similar waves are also found in Rokan Hilir which according to the local legend is the female dragon. Unfortunately, since the Bono comes only during certain times of the year (mostly around November and December) we did not get to witness this rare type of tidal bore.

The road to Tesso Nilo

The road to Tesso Nilo

After a days activity with the flying squad, we got invited by the local community to a performance of silat Pangean at the village courtyard in the evening. This is a kind of martial arts with some sacred rituals performed as a welcome ceremony to honor visitors. The performance was started with Maracik Limau ceremony. This was followed by a smooth gentle performance of martial arts. It is almost like dancing; nevertheless it can have a serious impact to the opponent.

 

 

 

Silat Pangean

Silat Pangean

On the third day of our visit, we did jungle trekking. We walked into the jungle for about 2.5 hrs and were introduced to the various types of vascular plant species that can be found in the forest. A vascular plant species is a land plant that has xylem and phloem tissues. Vascular plants include flowers, conifers, and ferns. Tesso Nilo has the highest diversity of these plants in the world. The guide also showed us the claw marks of a sun bear on a tree. At some point during our jungle walk we heard the noise of the bear quite close by. This stopped us for a while. Other animals living in the park are Sumatran tiger, Malayan tapir, midsize primates, deer, monitor lizard, snakes and butterflies. We found also a big type of snail on the forest floor. In the afternoon we went to see the traditional method of harvesting wild honey from the Sialang forest. The harvesting process was started with a ceremony of chanting from the man who will climb the tree where the beehive is located. The ceremony is to ask permission from the guardian spirits of the tree and forest. After the ceremony, the man climbed a few branches on the tree, then swung a long rope made of rattan root around the tree to climb further. On the way back we stopped by at the WWF nursery where they cultivate new saplings to be replanted in the forest.

Sialang forest

Sialang forest

Installing ladder for harvesting honey

Installing ladder for harvesting honey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The monsoon tropical rains and thunder came to the area that evening, keeping us indoors for the rest of the evening. I spent the evening writing in my journal, enjoying a hot ginger drink with fried banana and a dinner of typical Riau dish of  nasi lemak, patin asam pedas and vegetables. Nasi lemak is rice with coconut milk and patin asam pedas sour and spicy fish. No hope of stargazing for the night.

We left the lodge early in the morning soon after breakfast, bringing with us a souvenir of local sustainably harvested wild honey from Sialang purchased from Lubuk Kembang Bunga Village.

Image | Posted on by | Leave a comment

Tesso Nilo National Park: the home of WWF Elephant Flying Squad (part 1)

By S. Kramer
Z_Sumatra_FlyingSQLocated in the Pelalawan Regency in Riau Province, Tesso Nilo was designated as national park by the Indonesian government in 2004 to protect the endangered elephant and Sumatran tiger’s population. Tesso Nilo is the home of about 150 wild elephants, about half of the whole elephant population in Sumatra. It is part of Bukit Tiga Puluh conservation area. The Flying Squad project was established by the WWF and the Dept. of Conservation of Riau Province to tackle the human-elephant conflict in the area by using a group of tamed elephants to push wild elephants back to the jungle, away from human populated area.
As we flew above the area of south Sumatra, we were presented with the view of neat green patches of palm plantation covering the vast expanded area of what used to be a dense rainforest, former home of Sumatran tiger, rhinos, elephants, and orangutans among others. Where do they have to live now?  The monotonous view of palm trees plantations, although appears beautiful, made us realize how serious the deforestation activities has been. No wonder that every year they experience forest fire in this area which also affected the neighboring countries like Malaysia and Singapore.
After a restful night in Pekanbaru the capital of Riau, we left for Tesso Nilo accompanied by local WWF staff. The uneventful road trip takes about 4 hours with the last leg of the trip going through the palm trees plantation on a dirt road. The encroachment problem in Tesso Nilo is apparently still ongoing. People came to claim a piece of land in the protected area and built their houses or open the forest for palm plantation. At some point of the trip, we past a short stretch of a paved road passing through a small village, and we were told that the big house was the home of the village chief who deserves to have a paved road.
IMG_1665IMG_1731When we arrived at the guest house in Tesso Nilo we were greeted by the staff who brought us a glass of cool ginger lime drink. Then, we joined the staff to cook brownies for the elephants. It consists of rice husks, chopped corn, and palm sugar, cooked in a big pot over a bonfire. The mix was then cooled down overnight and made into brownie balls.
After breakfast, we started the day with giving a bath ritual to all the squad members. There were 6 elephants altogether working as a group. One female elephant named Lisa was absent because she was heavily pregnant.  After the refreshing bath, they get their treats of brownie balls that we cooked the day before. It was rather a scary funny experience to hand feed the elephant since we have to put the food  into its big mouth while its trunk flying around free, ready to hit us anytime.
I got to ride on an old gentleman elephant called Rahman behind the Mahout (trainer).  We went through the forest area where the elephants roam overnight, passing small streams up and down the hills and valley and finally arrived on a waterhole where the elephants usually take a bath in the morning. The guide asked us if we want to bathe the elephant and I agreed immediately. The guide took the saddle, asked the elephant to kneel down and helped me to get back to its back again. Then he led the elephant into the water, brownish black from humus and organic materials leached by the rains from the peat soil. On top of the elephant’s back I could still keep myself dry until the elephant started to kneel down into the bottom of the river taking me into the refreshing black water. Then it was my turn to work scrubbing and cleaning the elephant’s back. After a half hour of refreshing spa, we got out of the water and continued our journey back to the lodge.
IMG_1797
 
On June 1st, we received news that Lisa gave birth to a healthy baby girl in front of CCTV camera.

– Continued…

Posted in Indonesia | Leave a comment

South Maluku: Hidden paradise

By S. Kramer and W. Wang
DTCOMSideBar500_ML_ClearWater
Hidden under the protection of rocky cliffs and Mt. Binaya, Ora is a quiet, secluded beach with crystal-clear water, colorful schools of fish and coral inviting you to explore. The beach can only be reached by a small boat from the village of Saka.  Its remote location has kept its natural beauty from being spoiled by human activities from the outside world. There are some basic resorts on the beach that provide an all- inclusive and comfortable bungalows on stilts with coral reefs underfoot. In the evening you can listen to the sounds of sea creatures in the water while enjoying the starlit skies.
DTBlog500_ML_ManWCoconut
Both Ora and Sawai are places where you can relax, reconnect with nature and recharge your body, mind, and soul in a holistic natural way. Activities include exploring the Sawai river, hiking to visit waterfalls and snorkeling. You can also enjoy the local cuisine ranging from barbecued fresh fish and colo-colo salsa to simply a freshly picked coconut.
DTBlog500_ML_TreeHouse5People
For nature lovers or avid birdwatchers, an overnight stay at the treetop platform is an extraordinary experience that should not be missed. On a platform 45 m high above the ground, you can see the tropical cockatoos, parrots, and other exotic bird species  chasing one another roaming free above the tree canopy.  Seram is one of the places that attracted ornithologists and naturalists, like Alfred Wallace and Sir David Attenborough, to observe and document the various species of wildlife in Maluku.
The Salmon-crested cockatoo, the endangered purple-naped lory and Moluccan scrubfowl are some vulnerable endemic species under protection of the national park and from poaching and trading. Other endemic non-bird species include the Asian musk shrew, wahai tree frogs, and mosaic tailed rat. Cuscus often appears along the Tebing Batu beach area during the night. Manusela National Park covers 189,000 hectares containing 28 restricted-range species under monitoring and conservation.  If you have several days to spend, a well-planned couple of days visit to the national park with a guide is worth the time and effort. When you return to Amahai through the forest, you can observe typical famous vegetation of Maluku.

Before reaching Ambon, your final stop before leaving Maluku, you might want to visit Waai to see the sacred moray eels. In Ambon, you can visit old relics of a Dutch fort and WWII common wealth memorial park where heroes of WWII were laid to rest. If you have more time, you can also visit traditional village of Soya to discover Ambonese royal family manor.

Posted in Indonesia | Leave a comment

Sangiran : The Early Man Site’s UNESCO world heritage, the home of the Standing-Ape Man (Pithecanthropus Erectus)

By S. Kramer

Located  15 km north of Solo in central Java,  Indonesia, Sangiran archaeological excavation site covers an area of 5600 hectares.  It was declared as the Unesco World Heritage:  Sangiran Early Man site in 1996. It is a key site for hominid studies where more than 100 hominid fossils from around 1.5 million years ago had been unearthed. This totals about half of all known hominid fossils in the world. The importance of this site is that it provides an archaeological record of physical and cultural hominid evolution in its environment.

In search for the missing link of human evolution, Eugene Dubois discovered the remains of a hominid called Pithecanthropus erectus in 1891. This species is also called the Java man. The excavation was continued by G.H.R Von Koenigswald, a German paleo-anthropologist, in 1930 assisted by the locals. Following the discovery of animal fossils in 1930, a jawbone of Meganthropus Paleojavanicus  was discovered in 1936 followed by the discovery of the Pithecanthropus Erectus skull in 1960. The species collection from the site include Meganthropus paleojavanicus (Von Koenigswald 1936), Pithecanthropus Mojokertensis (1936), Pithecanthropus Erectus, and Pithecanthropus Soloensis (1969). The skull of Pithecanthropus indicated a brain size about two times bigger than a chimpanzee’s and two third the size of modern human brain.

Referred as the bones of the giants by the locals, the legend of the village told a story of a young man with supernatural power named Bandung of Sangiran defended the village from the attacks of a group of giants.

Management of the area is divided into 4 sites. Krikilan is the visitor center, Ngebung was the site of the original discovery, Bukuran is the site of the hominid evolution, and Dayu as the site of current research. At least two days are needed to visit all the four areas.

Posted in Indonesia | Leave a comment

Galungan celebration in Bali

Photo by Kenneth F.

Photo by Kenneth F.

By W. Wang

Galungan is a unique 10 day Hindu celebration commemorating the victory of Dharma (good things) over Adharma (bad things).

Galungan is a very important event for Balinese people, who are predominantly Hindus. It is celebrated every 210 days and this year falls on May 21, 2014.

Galungan is not only the time for a full day of prayer but is also time for families. Most of the Balinese will travel home to their ancestral village and spend time with their families and tight village community. In preparation for Galungan, people sacrifice pigs at the temple a day before. The event itself is called ‘Nampah Celeng’. ‘Nampah’ means preparation to accept blessing from the gods and ‘Celeng’ means pig which represents laziness (thus it has to be destroyed). They will later use the meat for a family feast on the Galungan day.

During Galungan, every corner of Bali is decorated with many penjor (a pole made from a high, curving bamboo stick) adorned with fruit, flowers, and coconut leaves, which symbolizes prosperity. On Galungan day, Balinese people place as many penjor as possible to show gratitude and respect to God for his blessing.

The 10 day celebration will end with ‘Kuningan’ on May 31, 2014. Balinese people believe that on Kuningan day, all the gods, as well as the supreme deity Sanghyang Widi (God), will come down to earth and join the festivities for half a day. They also believe that the spirit of ancestors and deceased relatives return to visit their homes during Galungan will return to heaven on Kuningan day.

Image | Posted on by | 1 Comment